Napoleon From 18 Brumaire to Tilsit, 1799-1807

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Lefebvre: Napoleon from 18 Brumaire to Tilsit Vol 1 (Cloth) by G LEFEBVRE -

The book has been read but remains in clean condition. All pages are intact and the cover is intact. Some minor wear to the spine. Seller Inventory GOR A readable copy of the book which may include some defects such as highlighting and notes. Cover and pages may be creased and show discolouration. Published by Columbia Univ Pr. About this Item: Columbia Univ Pr. Light rubbing wear to cover, spine and page edges.

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State College, PA, U. Thirs printing. Edges foxed, else a clean, tight copy. Third Printing octavo; pp. Seller Inventory N01L Published by Columbia University Press January Condition: Used. Hard Cover. The Battle of Marengo 14 June inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleon's Moscow campaign. Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, and was thought [ by whom?

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The Peace of Amiens , which cost him control of Egypt , was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa , Parma , Tuscany and Naples , and added this Italian territory to his Cisalpine Republic. Then he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of to control the material claims of the pope. When he recognised his error of raising the authority of the pope from that of a figurehead, Napoleon produced the Articles Organiques with the goal of becoming the legal protector of the papacy, like Charlemagne.

To conceal his plans before their actual execution, he aroused French colonial aspirations against Britain and the memory of the Treaty of Paris , exacerbating British envy of France, whose borders now extended to the Rhine and beyond, to Hanover , Hamburg and Cuxhaven. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie and the old aristocracy. On 12 May , the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with the exception of Carnot , in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France.

A general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,, votes aye and 8, votes nay. William Pitt the Younger , back in power over Britain, appealed once more for an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against Napoleon to stop the ideals of revolutionary France from spreading. Note 3.

In four campaigns, the Emperor transformed his " Carolingian " feudal republican and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman Empire. The memories of imperial Rome were for a third time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne , used to modify the historical evolution of France. The Treaty of Pressburg , signed on 26 December , extracted extensive territorial concessions from Austria, on top of a large financial indemnity. Napoleon's creation of the Kingdom of Italy , the occupation of Ancona , and his annexation of Venetia and its former Adriatic territories marked a new stage in his Empire's progress.

To create satellite states , Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations. In addition to the vassal titles, Napoleon's closest relatives were also granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power. On 6 August the Habsburgs abdicated their title of Holy Roman Emperor in order to prevent Napoleon from becoming the next Emperor, ending a political power which had endured for over a thousand years.

Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal. This, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October Successive victories at Eylau and Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Great 's formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.

The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe. The two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes. More specifically, the Tsar agreed to evacuate Wallachia and Moldavia , which had been occupied by Russian forces as part of the Russo-Turkish War of — The Ionian Islands and Cattaro , which had been captured by Russian admirals Ushakov and Senyavin , were to be handed over to the French. In recompense, Napoleon guaranteed the sovereignty of the Duchy of Oldenburg and several other small states ruled by the Tsar's German relatives.

Catalog Record: The Thermidorians | HathiTrust Digital Library

Prussia was ordered to reduce their army to 40, and to pay an indemnity of ,, francs. Observers in Prussia viewed the treaty as unfair and as a national humiliation. Talleyrand had advised Napoleon to pursue milder terms; the treaties marked an important stage in his estrangement from the emperor. After the Treaties of Tilsit, instead of trying to reconcile Europe, as Talleyrand had advised, Napoleon wanted to defeat Britain and complete his Italian dominion.

To the coalition of the northern powers, he added the league of the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and to the bombardment of Copenhagen by a Royal Navy fleet he responded by a second decree of blockade, dated from Milan on 17 December The Emperor's Roman ambition was made more visible by the occupation of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Marches , and by the entry of Miollis into Rome; while Junot invaded Portugal, Joachim Murat took control of formerly Roman Spain, whither Joseph Bonaparte transferred afterwards.

Napoleon tried to succeed in the Iberian Peninsula as he had done in Italy, in the Netherlands, and in Hesse. However, the exile of the Royal Family to Bayonne , together with the enthroning of Joseph Bonaparte, turned the Spanish against Napoleon. After the Dos de Mayo riots and subsequent reprisals, the Spanish government began an effective guerrilla campaign, under the oversight of a local Juntas.

Spain used up the soldiers needed for Napoleon's other fields of battle, and they had to be replaced by conscripts. Spanish resistance affected Austria, and indicated the potential of national resistance. The provocations of Talleyrand and Britain strengthened the idea that Austrians could emulate the Spaniards.

On April 10, , Austria invaded France's ally, Bavaria. The campaign of , however, would not be nearly as long and troublesome for France as the Spanish one. After a short and decisive action in Bavaria, Napoleon opened up the road to Vienna for a second time. At Aspern-Essling , Napoleon suffered his first serious tactical defeat, along with the death of Jean Lannes , an able Marshall and dear friend of the Emperor.

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The victory at Wagram , however, forced Austria to sue for peace. The Pope was forcibly deported to Savona , and his domains were incorporated into the Empire. He gradually withdrew power from his siblings and concentrated his affection and ambition on his son, the guarantee of the continuance of his dynasty. This was the high point of the empire. Britain, protected by the English Channel and its navy, was persistently active , and rebellion of both the governing and of the governed broke out everywhere.

Napoleon, though he underrated it, soon felt his failure in coping with the Spanish uprising. The alliance arranged at Tilsit was seriously shaken by the Austrian marriage, the threat of Polish restoration to Russia, and the Continental System. The very persons whom he had placed in power were counteracting his plans.

With many of his siblings and relations performing unsuccessfully or even betraying him, Napoleon found himself obliged to revoke their power. Caroline Bonaparte conspired against her brother and against her husband Murat; the hypochondriac Louis, now Dutch in his sympathies, found the supervision of the blockade taken from him, and also the defense of the Scheldt , which he had refused to ensure.

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The very nature of things was against the new dynasties, as it had been against the old. After national insurrections and family recriminations came treachery from Napoleon's ministers. Talleyrand betrayed his designs to Metternich and suffered dismissal. By consequence of the spirit of conquest Napoleon had aroused, many of his marshals and officials, having tasted victory, dreamed of sovereign power: Bernadotte , who had helped him to the Consulate , played Napoleon false to win the crown of Sweden. Soult , like Murat, coveted the Spanish throne after that of Portugal, thus anticipating the treason of The country itself, though flattered by conquests, was tired of self-sacrifice.

Amidst profound silence from the press and the assemblies, a protest was raised against imperial power by the literary world, against the excommunicated sovereign by Catholicism, and against the author of the continental blockade by the discontented bourgeoisie , ruined by the crisis of Even as he lost his military principles, Napoleon maintained his gift for brilliance.

Napoleon's Bloodless Coup - History

His Six Days Campaign , which took place at the very end of the Sixth Coalition , is often regarded as his greatest display of leadership and military prowess. But by then it was the end or "the finish" , and it was during the years before when the nations of Europe conspired against France. While the Emperor and his holdings idled and worsened, the rest of Europe agreed to avenge the revolutionary events of Napoleon had hardly succeeded in putting down the revolt in Germany when the Tsar of Russia himself headed a European insurrection against Napoleon.

To put a stop to this, to ensure his own access to the Mediterranean and exclude his chief rival, Napoleon made an effort in against Russia. Despite his victorious advance, the taking of Smolensk , the victory on the Moskva , and the entry into Moscow, he was defeated by the country and the climate, and by Alexander's refusal to make terms. After this came the terrible retreat in the harsh Russian winter, while all Europe was concentrating against him.

Following his retreat from Russia, Napoleon continued to retreat, this time from Germany. After the loss of Spain, reconquered by an allied army led by Wellington , the rising in the Netherlands preliminary to the invasion and the manifesto of Frankfort 1 December [14] which proclaimed it, he had to fall back upon the frontiers of ; and then later was driven yet farther back upon those of —despite the brilliant campaign of against the invaders.

Paris capitulated on 30 March , and the Delenda Carthago , pronounced against Britain, was spoken of Napoleon. The Empire briefly fell with Napoleon's abdication at Fontainebleau on 11 April After a brief exile at the island of Elba , Napoleon escaped, with a ship, a few men, and four cannons. The King sent Marshal Ney to arrest him. Upon meeting Ney's army, Napoleon dismounted and walked into firing range, saying "If one of you wishes to kill his emperor, here I am! However, he was defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. He surrendered himself to the Coalition and was exiled to Saint Helena , a remote island in the South Atlantic, where he remained until his death in Napoleon gained support by appealing to some common concerns of French people.

Napoleon attracted power and imperial status and gathered support for his changes of French institutions, such as the Concordat of which confirmed the Catholic Church as the majority church of France and restored some of its civil status. Napoleon by this time however was not a democrat, nor a republican.

He was, he liked to think, an enlightened despot, the sort of man Voltaire might have found appealing. He preserved numerous social gains of the Revolution while suppressing political liberty. He admired efficiency and strength and hated feudalism, religious intolerance, and civil inequality.

Enlightened despotism meant political stability. He knew his Roman history well, as after years of republicanism, Rome became an empire under Augustus Caesar. Although a supporter of the radical Jacobins during the early days of the Revolution more out of pragmatism than any real ideology , Napoleon became increasingly autocratic as his political career progressed and once in power embraced certain aspects of both liberalism and authoritarianism — for example, public education , a generally liberal restructuring of the French legal system , and the emancipation of the Jews — while rejecting electoral democracy and freedom of the press.

First French Empire. French Empire [1]. Imperial Coat of arms.