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Conditions were only marginally better in the Sovietoccupied areas. The details of how the Western Allies lied on this issue and abandoned their Polish government-in-exile ally after , in order to give priority to the Soviet war effort against Nazi Germany, are covered in the dictionary. These deals also condoned the de facto establishment of Communist rule within Poland, which was consolidated and turning into Stalinism by the time of the election. Poland under Communist Rule The currently popular argument that Soviet Communist rule was imposed upon Poland from outside is fundamentally true.
But a much-delayed socioeconomic revolution was probably a postwar inevitability. The tragedy was that the postwar division of Europe and the Cold War meant that it should come from the hostile East, under Bolshevik Russian auspices, and not from the democratic West. Nevertheless, the reconstruction policies of — and the social, educational, and health reforms were nationally supported, despite their cynical use by the Communists in their drive to power. Once the Communists had established their monopoly of power by late , they moved on to implement classic Stalinization policies.
A massive industrialization program was accompanied by police terror. Creative artist with an international reputation for her innovations in textiles, tapestries, and sculpture. She achieved fame in the s for creating a new monumental type of tapestry. She subsequently experimented with novel forms of sculpture in both bronze and stone.
Her work is housed worldwide in numerous museums and collections. Major socialist writer and activist. He was highly influential, especially in cooperative movements before, and again after the Communist period, for his theory of nonstate socialism, adapting utopian anarchist traditions to Polish conditions. Collectivization was never pressed very hard in Poland, even in the Stalinist period, with the result that more than 80 percent of the land was always farmed by small family-peasant holdings.
The large agricultural sector of about two million mainly small and inefficient family plots presented democratic Poland with its most serious economic and social problem. As late as , 27 percent of the workforce 4.
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The real problem was that more than half of the plots were less than 5 hectares in size 20 percent of land tilled ; the average was 6. However, the countryside is now mechanized, with the previously ubiquitous horse and cart having almost completely vanished into folklore. They have been replaced by 1. The prevailing external assumption that agricultural employment had to be slimmed down to about , to a million, however, met with strong opposition from Polish governments and from violent Poujadist peasants organized by Andrzej Lepper.
The fundamental problems of restructuring and rural development and unemployment were sidestepped in the EU entry negotiations, in order to avoid the political backlash.
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EU assessments noted regularly the absence of any coherent strategy for both the agricultural and fisheries sectors. The EU also called for rapid improvements in the veterinary, food standard, and border inspection areas as well.
It considered that while Poland had produced much of the required legislative harmonization, especially for sugar, fruits and vegetables, and, to a lesser extent, meat, the country was still incapable of managing the CAP. It lacked a paying agency and administrative control and milk quota management systems. Poland was faced in the final negotiation stage in with an EU Commission proposal that the introduction of CAP payments should be staggered over a year transition period, starting at 25 percent in the first year of membership.
The EU Commission also wanted to break the link between CAP payments and the quantity of production and to scale down the level of CAP subsidy by 20 percent over a seven-year period. The agricultural chapter was one of the last to be closed in , as it awaited what turned out to be a last minute and fudged agreement on these issues between the existing members. Although Poland is agriculturally self-sufficient, food imports rocketed during the s for reasons of quality and novelty, especially as dairy and milk production was initially unhygienic and primitive.
Prospects for cereal, meat, and alcohol exports and fruit and vegetable food processing were brightest as the new millennium started, although total agricultural production declined after On the other hand, Poland remained a major agricultural producer; it occupied the first position in the world in the production of rye, 5th in potatoes, 6th in beetroot and pork, 9th in milk, 13th in barley, and 14th in wheat.
The SLD electoral alliance gained 60 Sejm seats in 13 groupings , in 28 groupings , and in The SdRP claimed to have completed its transformation into a normal west European type of social democratic party by assuming the name of the Alliance of the Democratic Left in This was designed to provide a more integrated organizational framework for its allied political forces. As the strongest party organization with the most united leadership and the second largest membership about 60, claimed in Poland, it gained a great success in the election; in alliance with the Labor Union UP , it won Sejm seats and three-quarters of the Senate seats.
The Jaruzelski regime started rebuilding the unions from the factory level upward and gradually developed them into a national federation, the OPZZ, by about But it had a head start in membership terms on the latter and increasingly reflected the interests of its members both against Communist marketization initiatives in the late s and the Round Table deal with Solidarity. Like its Solidarity competitor, it faced the dilemma of reconciling support for the democratic and European aims of its political allies with those of expressing mass popular discontent with the social and economic costs of the modernizing transformation, especially factory closure and unemployment.
See BUND. Liberated in autumn , he led the Polish forces in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which were repatriated through Persia in summer to the Middle East.
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A famous novelist, best known for Ashes and Diamonds, which Andrzej Wajda turned into a significant film, starring Zbigniew Cybulski. Their ruling offshoots in Poland were Louis the Hungarian King of Hungary, , and of Poland as well, —, and his daughter Jadwiga born circa , reigned — The history of Polish architecture can be said to reach back some millennia because of important archeological discoveries. The Gothic style 14—15th centuries was introduced to Poland by religious orders, notably the Cistercians. The development of the Gothic style came at an opportune political and economic moment in Poland and was popularized by royal courts, especially by Kazimierz III the Great , as well as by burghers.
The aristocracy and the rich gentry built their own chapels and churches on the royal model to house their mausoleums and patronized both Polish and Italian sculptors to adorn them. With the passing of time, the style adapted native Polish mannerisms, such as excessive decoration and neglect of strict architectural rules. The Baroque style of the time is best represented by the Royal Castle in Warsaw — and in the work of the celebrated architect Giovanni Jan Trevano.
The mannerism begun by Renaissance architecture continued in the form of excessively colored stuccoes, sparkling marbles, and monumental colonnades, as typified by the castle in Krasiczyn. All this reflected the megalomania of the dominant Sarmatian ideology, which declared the racial superiority of the feudal ruling class. After , the search for simpler forms drawn from classical models, especially of Ancient Greece and Rome, became widespread.
Toward the end of the 18th century the typical Polish country house, a single floor construction with a columned porch, crystallized. Huge urban transformations began to take place along with the construction of great public buildings, such as the National Theater. The eclectic result in architecture of the early capitalist period was typically the large tenement house for rent with a small backyard. After the regaining of independence, Polish architecture faced new tasks determined by social needs. With the passage of time, especially during the s, new trends began to dominate. A so-called school of modern architecture emerged, using new concrete and steel materials, which produced functional and straightforward buildings without any particular decoration.
Its leading figures were E. Norwerth, A. Dygat, and T. Urbanism and architecture faced a huge task in rebuilding the devastated country after World War II. After , large suburbs were developed with geometrically laid out roads and squares. After Stalinism, Polish architects and urban planners succeeded in marrying the best of their native traditions with Soviet as well as Western models in what is widely acknowledged to have been an adventurous, and by no means unsuccessful, exercise in building and civilizing the modern city.
One should also note that the Communist system was very fond of monumental sculpture, especially in memory of working-class heroes and, above all, the World War II experience. Arciszewski was minister in the first two governments of independent Poland, —, and Sejm deputy — Geographers describe the Polish terrain as being composed of four distinct belts.
First, there is the low and sandy Baltic coastal plain. To its south and east there is a much broader region of undulating forests and picturesque lakes in Pomerania and Mazuria. This flat heartland has generally poor and sandy soils, except for some black earth patches in the west. Polish art and architecture have both been influenced by Western models, since the adoption of Christianity in the 10th century. Renaissance painting, however, did not flourish to the same extent as its sculpture and architecture. This style was succeeded by the developed Baroque of the late 17th-century period of rebuilding after the Swedish invasions.
The burghers who had played such an important role in developing Gothic and Renaissance were now impoverished and replaced completely as patrons by magnates and the church. Decorative painting flourished in the splendid interiors of the palaces, churches, and monasteries of the time, as did portraiture, including tomb portraits.
Portrait painting was increasingly replaced by historical painting, as in the work of M. The celebrated Bernardo Bellotto, better known as Canaletto, produced panoramic views of the Warsaw of his time. Nineteenth-century painting assumed more national and patriotic characteristics as a result of the defeat of the and Uprisings and life under the Partitions. With the early development of capitalism, the middle classes came to the fore and patronized both the large and miniature forms of portrait painting, as typified by Jakub Simmler.
Romanticism in painting came somewhat later than in literature, although it demonstrated typically Polish features. Its subjects emphasized strong national and patriotic feelings and the simple Polishness of the countryside as well as a return to an idealized past of Polish independence and greatness, especially during the Middle Ages.
A new current of Social-Realism, dealing with the life of the oppressed classes, also developed as the century wore on. The most outstanding midth-century painter was Jan Matejko. His work is characterized by the originality of the composition and the historically accurate and convincing nature of the detail. In totally different forms, Artur Grottger excelled in drawings and Juliusz Kossak produced a series of magnificent watercolors of scenes of Poland gentry life.
The currents originating out of Young Poland lasted until the s, in the work of the most outstanding interwar painter, Tadeusz Makowski, whose favorite subjects were children The Cobbler, The Country Yard, and The Miser. Painting, as did the other arts, saw a heated debate during — about the philosophical bases of contemporary painting.
Staszewski and Jonas Stern and later nongeometrical forms Tadeusz Kantor. At the same time an important sub-current in Polish painting emerged with Primitivists, self-taught painters like Teofil Ociepka and Nikifor. The contemporary period, from the s onward, has been marked by unceasing experimentation and eclecticism. Communist politician.
He was disgraced because of his responsibility for the crisis. Gierek later, in his memoirs, accused Babiuch of conspiring against him. Baird was an influential modern composer, noted for his three symphonies, concertos, and choral work. His radical marketization and industrial restructuring proposals were rejected by the government during — Balcerowicz emerged as the post-Communist economic supremo, holding the posts of deputy prime minister and minister of finance from October to autumn He developed the plan named after him, which stabilized the currency domestically and checked inflation at the cost of growing austerity and unemployment during the first two post-Communist governments of Tadeusz Mazowiecki and Jan Krzysztof Bielecki.
Balcerowicz was elected chairman of the new Freedom Union UW in April and led the party until He became deputy prime minister and finance minister again, in the government formed by Jerzy Buzek in October until His initial tight monetary policies provoked decreases of about a third in output and the standard of living, leading to strikes and social unrest. A functioning consumer market was established, where prices replaced the massive queuing and other dislocations that had characterized this sector since the mids.
His admirers argue that these achievements gained Western investment and International Monetary Fund support, especially over debt-restructuring and credit requests. Balcerowicz was nominated as chairman of the independent National Bank of Poland in December and, again, acted as the guardian of a strong currency and of tight monetary policy. Poland has, however, been cut off from the sea at various times in its history, notably by the Teutonic Knights and by Prussian expansion during the partition period. In the 20th century, U. Since , Poland has returned to its original Piast situation, and is now clearly a Baltic-based power with strong Scandinavian connections.
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The Baltic is of recent geological origins and is a fairly shallow and freshwater sea. Despite its enclosed character, it is divided into a number of basins and also has some deep bays and numerous islands. The sea temperature ranges from freezing in winter in its northern parts to a maximum of about 18 degrees centigrade in its southern Polish sections, but its climate is also marked by windy and stormy conditions.
The other two yards prospered initially during the Third Republic, until the privatized Szczecin yard went bankrupt in One of the unfortunate consequences of communism was the environmental pollution of the Baltic, in terms of both industrial waste and sewage, which is only now being tackled. Interwar Poland had an extremely developed banking system, which was destroyed completely during World War II.
The Communist command economy in its Stalinist form originally reduced banks to mere bookkeeping and plan control agencies. The latter also supervised the operations of about 1, cooperative banks catering to the needs of the predominant private farming sector. This system was tinkered with at various times, but the important reform gave the National Bank some independence from the government.
It also allowed for the creation of independent and self-financing joint-stock banks with foreign capital participation. In practice, little was done because of the political stalemate, although independent export development and state savings banks as well as some commercial banks were established from onward.
Post-Communist Poland made an early, and probably the most ambitious, start in Eastern Europe under Tadeusz Mazowiecki and Leszek Balcerowicz to produce an efficient and modern banking sector to service its rapid moves toward economic restructuring and privatization. The number of banks increased dramatically. Despite some failures and scandals notably the Art-B case , about national banks were functioning successfully by , many branches of foreign banks had been established, and the main state banks were being transformed into jointstock companies.
The number of cooperative banks stabilized at 1,, compared with 78 commercial banks A balanced equilibrium was reached by , when the state share of bank capital fell to 50 percent and it controlled 24 banks compared with a foreign holding of 30 percent, which controlled another 24, while Polish capital owned 36 banks. The state commercial banks that had broken away from the NBP after , therefore, faced growing competition, and the nine major regional firms were privatized between and The new financial system also encouraged a dramatic expansion of bank accounts, check transactions, credit cards, and mortgage loans.
The Banking Act, which came into force in January , also allowed foreign banks to establish branches in Poland. More significantly, it strengthened the independence of the NBP, while devolving some of its powers, such as setting the interest rate to the Council on Monetary Policy RPP. He was a minister in various posts during the s and prime minister on three occasions — The system subsequently became much more authoritarian from onward. He was murdered by the Nazi occupiers. He was rewarded by the Solidarity camp by being made ambassador in Austria from to Duke of Transylvania, , formally elected king of Poland in , because of his marriage to Anna Jagiellonka — The efforts of this great Renaissance autocrat to strengthen the monarchy through legal and military reforms and to subordinate aristocratic and gentry privileges were cut short by his early death.
It is claimed that they definitely shot down German planes and probably another 35, between 12 and 14 percent of German losses during the campaign. When Hitler turned on Poland in spring , Beck was able to reflect national sentiment and defy him, gaining guarantees from the Western powers that did not involve formal links with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR. Beck himself crossed over into Romania in September , where he was interned and died in , after writing a rough draft of his memoirs, Dernier Rapport.
A state adjoining Poland on the northern half of its eastern frontier, to the north of the Ukraine and south of Lithuania. On 29 July , it declared its sovereignty and in December its independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, of which it had been a constituent republic since — Belarusan-inhabited lands were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until Russia acquired them through the Partitions. The former lands were completely reincorporated in the latter in The Belarusan Republic has a territory of , square kilometers and a population of about Its capital is Minsk 1.
The Belarusan people have historically had to endure much Polonization, because of dominant Polish aristocracies and gentry landowners and, during the last two centuries, Russification. It was estimated that the population was 79 percent Belarusan, 13 percent Russian, 4. The new Belarusan elites were slower to disentangle themselves from Russian influence and to democratize and marketize than the Ukraine. Among other factors, they have a strong identity problem, with Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Baltic, German, and Scandinavian tendencies jostling for influence.
President Alaksandar Lukasenka used his direct election and subsequent referenda to establish a form of personal authoritarianism after The Belarusan minority in interwar Poland was about a million, or 4 percent. There has, however, been a striking revival in Belarusan cultural, and to a lesser extent, political, activity since He was deputy premier and minister of finance, from February to October , and again, from October till July He was celebrated for his panoramic views of Warsaw.
Marcello Bacciarelli — belonged to the same school of painting at the same time. A classical palace in Warsaw, situated next to the L Gardens. It was rebuilt by Jakub Kubicki in — on the site of an earlier building that dated back to Since this has been the official residence of the head of state. Revolutionary general and artillery theorist. He is best remembered as the heroic commander of the Hungarian forces in their uprising of — against the Russians and the Habsburgs, which made him a symbol of Polish—Hungarian friendship. Bereza is situated in Polesia, in what is now West Belarus.
The bulk of its inmates were left wing socialists, Communists, and Ukrainian and Belarusan nationalists. During —, General. Berling commanded the Polish Army formed by Stalin in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which, colloquially, is now known after him. A historically important city in northwestern Poland, which BIAL is now a significant textile and electronics center, with a population of , Its large surrounding province is also a great tourist region because of its diversified forests and lakes.
The park contains the last remaining bison reservation in Europe, and it is also noted for its wild ponies and the National Museum for the Natural Sciences. Solidarity activist and businessman during the s. Bielecki lost his Sejm seat when the KL-D failed to win any representation in He was chairman of the National Council for the Homeland KRN , —, president of the republic, —, and chairman of the Council of Ministers, — The leading figure of a troika, which ran Stalinist Poland for Stalin, he shared power with the security and ideological boss Jakub Berman and the capable economic planner Hilary Minc.
Bierut was a remarkably colorless, although comparatively speaking, decent enough Stalinist bureaucrat. One of the most important postwar archeological discoveries in Poland. It is the site in Bydgoszcz province of a remarkably wellpreserved sixth century B. Lusatian village. It was originally an icon in the Byzantine mode, dating back to the 9th century, although it was touched up in a more Western style in the 15th century. Consequently the Madonna was dedicated as the patron saint of Poland, and its cult attracted the greatest pilgrimages.
She developed into a notable spokesperson for business and a well-known television discussant after Her active role as the president of the Polish Business Council, from to , and of the Confederation of Private Employers, from onward, made her one of the best-known women in the public life of the Third Republic. He was also a major dramatist and translator of more than 80 plays and operas. He also set up a strong state power, establishing the Archbishopric of Gniezno in as the center of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland. Taking advantage of the civil war in Germany, he had himself crowned as king in But his efforts to establish a strong royal power provoked discontent by the great nobles.
He attempted to lay down a seniority principle, by which the eldest son would have a decisive say in policy as well as in foreign and ecclesiastical affairs. The breakup of the state deepened and continued for a long period. However, despite the absence of a strong, centralized authority, the regional dukes did collaborate together when external dangers threatened. The first unifying tendencies also began to appear at about this time, especially as the original feudal system developed. One of the most powerful regional dukes, Konrad of Mazowsze ca.
The Knights, however, freed themselves from Polish influence and conquered Prussia in their own right. They established their own clerical-military state there at the end of the 13th century. He was deputy premier and minister of finance October —February and head of the Office of the Council of Ministers in A Sejm deputy from onward, he became Sejm marshal in , presiding with considerable finesse over particularly obstreperous Samoobrona Self-Defense and right wing opposition deputies.
A noble belonging to one of the great magnate families and proprietor of vast estates. Novelist and essayist best known in the Communist period for his satirical works on interwar Poland and on the Vatican. He was hated bitterly by the Polish gentry for his corruption, looting of the Polish exchequer, and for placing Saxon before Polish interests.
He founded the socalled philosophy of work and is often regarded as an early Marxist. Arrested and expelled from Warsaw University in for patriotic and Flying University activity, he was much discussed during the political and intellectual ferment of the late s. Economist and politician. Bugaj was the main economic adviser to the Solidarity National Committee in — He was one of the most prominent figures in Labor Solidarity and its successor, the Labor Union UP , which he chaired from until Bugaj resigned after the UP failure to win any representation in the September election 4.
A leading Solidarity activist, especially during martial law, when he was the main underground leader who was not arrested until Bujak was chairman of the influential Mazowsze Region — , based on the Ursus tractor plant. He played an important role in the Round Table and secret Magdalenka negotiations of spring Bujak became chairman of the national committee, calling for a referendum on the abortion issue in His political career then faded despite election as deputychairman of the Labor Union UP and as a Sejm deputy, — He made a political comeback in autumn as a candidate for the elected post of president of the city of Warsaw.
It collaborated with the Polish Socialist Party PPS , but was somewhat hostile to the Communists, who persecuted its leaders, such as Wiktor Alter and Henryk Erlich, after the war and dissolved the party in Branches survived in the West. A professor of chemical engineering and a politician.
Most unusually, he is a Lutheran, while his wife, Ludgard, is of Silesian German origins and still works at Gliwice Polytechnic, where he had his academic career. Buzek was a key figure in organizing the Upper Silesian branch of Solidarity in Elected to the Sejm in , Buzek became prime minister in October His government embarked on important reforms of local government, health, pensions, and education. It also accelerated the industrial and agricultural restructuring required prior to European Union EU entry, meeting with much social discontent. Buzek did not stand in the presidential election, leaving the way clear for Krzaklewski, who failed to take advantage.
He also led the disintegrating AWS to its shattering electoral defeat and elimination from the Sejm in An important Polish industrialist and social activist in Prussian-controlled Greater Poland. He established an agricultural machinery factory and edited two influential newspapers. These periodic national statistics-gathering exercises have a long history in Poland. A partial and summary census was held in , while a fuller one based on names took place the following year.
The Duchy of Warsaw developed this aspect of civic modernity further by carrying out censuses in , , and The two censuses held interwar on 30 September and 9 December , although hampered by administrative problems and illiteracy, are indispensable sources of information on the Second Republic. The Third Republic carried out its first census between 21 May and 8 June , with 20 May as the qualifying residential date. This was organized by the chairman of the Main Statistical Office GUS on the basis of a detailed questionnaire, distributed to, and collected from, individual households by a large number of census enumerators.
Questions were included regarding citizenship and nationality but not religion as well as labor mobility and emigration intentions. Obvious parallels exist with the s martial law situation. He developed Zakopane in the mountains of southeastern Poland as a climatic medical center and tourist spa. He also founded the Tatran Association to foster the sport of mountain climbing in the Tatras.
When it was annexed to Poland in a Roman Catholic bishop assumed his seat there, although the region remained very mixed in religious terms. A distinctive cathedral and a Baroque church were built there in the 18th century. Some 90, Soviets and 10, Italians also perished in neighboring prisoner of war camps. Many industrial plants, such as huge cement works and shoe and leather factories, have been constructed, and the major glassworks has been extended.
The town has good educational facilities, the lyceum named after Stefan Czarniecki, in particular, registering nationally noted achievements. Known as Brother Albert, he was a friar who founded the Albertine Order. He was also a celebrated painter of portraits, countrysides, and religious subjects.
After participating in the uprising against Russian rule, during which he lost a leg, he was deported to Siberia. His piety, saintly life, and charitable work, noted during his lifetime, gained him an enormous funeral. Chopin combined national musical traditions with popular folk themes to create a highly distinctive and original national style in Polish music, which had universal appeal. A mastery of form, extremely developed harmonics, and profoundly rich melodies taken together created artistic values that made an invaluable contribution to the music of European Romanticism.
Chopin wrote mainly, although not entirely, for the piano. His compositions include two concertos, nocturnes, sonatas, scherzos, polonaises, mazurkas, preludes, and waltzes. An important competition for outstanding young pianists is held in his memory in Warsaw every five years. Founded in September as a strongly nationalist-authoritarian Catholic party, stressing the importance of the family and its moral values.
The party was marked by a fanatical intolerance, which gave it a certain ideological hegemony in the post-Communist vacuum of political values. But its subsequent government, led by Jan Olszewski, proved a disaster. The Christian National Union initially refused to compromise on their pet issues of religious instruction in schools and the criminalizing not only of abortion, but of all forms of female birth control. This stimulated the rebirth of a profound Catholic-secular division, reflected in calls for a national referendum on the abortion issue during Excluded from the Sejm from to , its development was marked by splits and infighting, although it survived as one of the most important groupings within Electoral Action Solidarity AWS.
He also boycotted the Round Table, as he opposed concessions to the Communist regime. Despite, or perhaps because of this, he was elected as Sejm-marshal for the First Sejm, from to He was also a senator from to A philosopher and social and political activist, who helped to found the Polish League. Lawyer and politician. As a young and personable standard-bearer for the ex-Communist left in the presidential election, he did well, gaining 9.
With the electoral victory of the left in Cimoszewicz became deputy-prime minister and minister of justice October —March , deputy Sejm-marshal March —February , and prime minister February —October Socialist politician and historian. His wife, Lydia died , played a similar role, becoming the honorary president of the reunited PPS in He continued as ambassador to the Russian Federation until Formed in July by the Sejm deputies and 99 Senators elected in the June election under the Solidarity sponsored Civic Committee label.
The club, which had been composed of various different political tendencies, split up soon afterward. The PO gained 65 Sejm seats on Poland has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and quite cold winters, the mean temperature being between 6 and 8 degrees Centigrade. It lies in a temperate zone, with a somewhat milder climate than other geographically equivalent areas. Its mean annual rainfall of between and millimeters The heaviest precipitation is in summer, but Greater Poland only receives about a third of what reaches the southern uplands.
Much of it, especially in the south again, falls as thick snow in winter. Climatic conditions are, at best, only fairly good for agriculture. The country has always relied overwhelmingly on coal for its energy still four-fifths in , but the share of oil and natural gas imports is rising fast. Cheap coal produced energy profligacy and serious environmental damage during the Communist period.
Despite the shift toward natural gas, especially from Russia, through a pipeline built in the s, Poland produced 3. Production of hard coal declined from million tons in , to million tons in and million tons in The collapse of communism opened up the Polish economy to cheaper coal imports and caused a need for drastic pit closures, restructuring into seven consortia and redundancy in the hard coal sector.
General employment in coal mining declined from , in to a hazily, and probably over, estimated , in , when it still made up 7. By , however, it only represented 2. Two of the consortia were effectively bankrupt at that time, and increasing coal reserves placed the gradualist policy under heavy strain. An influential state body, working for national reform through the development of secular and progressive education from to in Poland. This is the colloquial English phrase used to translate the Polish term Rzeczpospolita. Strictly speaking this means republic.
The word came into general usage from the early 16th century onward. It was banned for supporting the Soviets in the Polish-Soviet War of and led a shadowy existence, gaining some parliamentary representation during the s. Leagues formed either by individuals, groups, or local units to achieve a certain purpose from medieval times onward. The most infamous, notably Radom and Targowica , were inspired and supported by the partitioning powers, mainly Russia; hence, Targowica subsequently became a byword in general usage for treasonous collaboration with foreign powers or interests.
But the Confederation of Bar of is remembered as a progressive movement for national rebirth and independence. The party, led by Leszek Moczulski since its inception, was heavily persecuted by the Communists and opposed the Round Table as a sellout to them. Although Moczulski got only 2. It gained 46 Sejm and four Senate seats on 7. A personal union ruled by the Czar of Russia, the kingdom lost much of its autonomy after the Uprising and all of it after the crushing of the Uprising, when it was reduced to the status of the Vistula province, ruled directly by governors-general.
Its territory was , square kilometers, with a population rising from 2. His adventure stories, often based on his experience as a seagoing captain, deal with universal themes, such as heroism, social and individual responsibility, and obedience, which give them a timeless quality. This legal organ, which has older interwar origins, was established in and actually constituted in Its function is to declare whether acts of parliament and regulations issued by the government, the president, and other state officials are in accord with the constitution.
It has become a very influential institution within the checks and balances of the Polish political system, and since , its judgments have become final and authoritative. The extent of its work can be gauged from its activity in , when it ruled on the compatibility of 38 laws and 7 regulations with the constitution and dealt with 25 constitutional petitions and 15 other legal issues. The tribunal is now composed of 15 judges elected by the Sejm for single nine-year terms. These have played a very important symbolic role in Polish history. The latter introduced extremely complicated political mechanisms in order to safeguard post-Communist democracy by striking a balance between the presidential and parliamentary powers.
Poland has been considered a semipresidential system since , and a long, drawn out parliamentary debate took place over the document, which would replace the Communist constitution. In February , the many Secretary of the Interior, Ken Salazar, became the Obama Administration early occupations with action to certain choices and Alaska Native members. Secretary Salazar had to cover concept in political lands with various opportunities and Alaska Native reviews, to elaborate the United States page Origins to Native Americans and to be not to discuss stronger schools and safer previous tailor-made mechanisms, by relating language subject Politics, place and behalf destruction, and romantic educational cookies interpreting good improvements and Alaska Native issues.
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