The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 (Great Historic Disasters)
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Figure 5 shows a typical mosque south of Banda Aceh, which was impacted by 5-meter-high tsunami waves. Inspection revealed that the quality of construction and of the concrete in most mosques was excellent. Most have steel-reinforced concrete frames as load-resisting systems, along with domes and open arches that allowed tsunami waves to traverse the space without causing serious damage. The low-lying topography of Banda Aceh and surrounding areas and the height of the water resulted in debris being swept in and out by the three successive destructive tsunami waves.
This caused large, heavy projectiles, such as cars, trucks, and fishing boats, to be swept in and out, each time impacting previ-ously undamaged facilities. Many small buildings were structurally damaged by tsunami waves carrying floating debris. A large number of fishing boats were docked at the coastal and river locations that traverse the city. Fishing boats were torn from their moorings and cast inland during the tsunami.
Electric Power Most well designed and well constructed electric power plants in Aceh Province did not experience structural damage from the earthquake or tsunami. The electric generating facilities experienced light damage to the generating capacity and no damage to the transmission network.
However, there was substantial damage to the distribution network in the affected area. Most above-ground distribution systems were seriously damaged or destroyed by the tsunami. Damage to the power supply was concentrated in western Aceh Province, along low-lying areas in Banda Aceh and toward the south along the west coast to just beyond Meulaboh.
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The main damage was to the power distribution networks small substations and hollow-core distribution poles. About , customers were affected by loss of power in Banda Aceh and along the low-lying coastal plain to Meulaboh. An megawatt diesel-generating station, mounted on a barge offshore, was swept inland more than 3 kilo-meters from the harbor in Banda Aceh by tsunami wave action. Although the power plant was undamaged, it left a path of destruction of houses and commercial buildings as it charged inland.
PT PLN plant operators informed us that neither the intense shaking nor the 3 kilometer transport of the barge-station was the reason the plant was not operating; the main problem was lack of demand. PT PLN reported that electric power was restored to most emergency-response customers in Banda Aceh within three days and to the remaining customers within about two weeks.
PT PLN reported that the electric system generally was not affected by earthquake shaking, except for the newly built headquarters building, which was more than three stories high and had to be abandoned. The tsunami did not affect the kV substation or the inland diesel-generating power stations.
A small 1 megawatt diesel-powered plant was destroyed at Calang, directly on the coast about halfway between Banda Aceh and Meulaboh. The Meulaboh Lamno diesel plant did not experience significant damage. The kV transmission line and associated substations transmitting power from power plants to the east functioned normally during and after the earthquake and tsunami.
In fact, the electric power in western Aceh Province did not shut down. Some PT PLN emergency-response workers were electrocuted when they attempted to restore electricity to emergency facilities because they had assumed the tsunami had tripped the power supply. Gas and Liquid Fuel Facilities The state-owned Pertamina petroleum company suffered substantial damage to fuel depots, where storage facilities were damaged and some fuel was lost, mostly on the west coast of Aceh Province, particularly in Banda Aceh and south to Meulaboh.
The deep-water port at Kreung Raya, the petroleum storage and distribution facility, lost half of its above-ground piping and 3 of 12 liquid fuel diesel, high-octane gas, oil, and kerosene storage tanks. None of the tanks was anchored to its foundations, and the three that were swept away by tsunami waves were only partially full. The nine full storage tanks were not affected. As with the electric system, most above-ground distribution systems were seriously damaged or destroyed by the tsunami.
Roads and Bridges Roads and bridges were devastated by the force of the tsunami waves. Many bridges were swept off their supports, and connecting earth embankments were significantly scoured, disabling the transportation network for hundreds of kilometers along the west coast of Aceh Province. Hundreds of bridges were picked up and swept inland by the tsunami waves, some more than a kilometer. Waves devastated the southern Indian coastline killing an estimated 18, people. An aerial view of Marina beach after a tsunami triggered by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean hit the area in the southern Indian city of Madras on December 26, An Indian woman mourns the death of her relative who was killed in the tsunami in Cuddalore, some km mi south of the southern Indian city of Madras, on December 28, Estimates of the death toll in Indonesia top , The ruins the dome of a mosque that was hit by the tsunami, seen on December 14, in Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
Acehnese women cry as they pray at mass grave to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the Boxing Day tsunami on December 26, in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Ruins of a bridge that was hit by the tsunami, seen on December 14, in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Visitors take pictures of the glowing names of tsunami victims at Aceh Tsunami Museum in Banda Aceh on December 26, Survivors of Asia's tsunami and relatives of its victims cried and prayed as they gathered along Indian Ocean shorelines on Friday for memorials to mark the 10th anniversary of a disaster that still leaves an indelible mark on the region.
Personal possessions of tsunami victims are arranged to be photographed outside a police station in Takua Pa, in Phang Nga province, on December 19, Thai police opened a shipping container filled with documents and possessions of victims of the Indian Ocean Tsunami after being asked by Reuters for permission to film its contents. The three meter by 12 meter container was handed over to Thai police in and contains hundreds of plastic police evidence bags - each one holding the precious items found on the body of a victim. People light candles as survivors, local residents and visitors gather for a ceremony for victims of tsunami in Ban Nam Khem, a southern fishing village destroyed by the wave, on December 26, In Thailand, where 5, people were killed, among them about 2, foreign tourists, commemoration ceremonies will be held in Ban Nam Khem.